Pharmacognosy notes for D. pharm # 1 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Glycoresins can be hydrolysed by acidic hydrolysis to The disagreeable odour of the oil is due to mainly the disulphide. Cannabis causes only pshycic dependence and act upon the nervous system. Ammoniacum is an example of natural gum The rice plants provide protection to benzoin plants during first year. water insoluble but mostly soluble in alcohol or other organic solvents. Being acidic compounds they are soluble in aqueous solution of resenes. 2 and 3 Tannins are naturally occurring complex organic compounds possessing nitrogen free polyphenols of high molecular weight. Pharmacognosy is the study about the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological implications of natural products for medicinal or health benefit purposes. Siam Benzoin is a balsamic resin derived from stem of Styrax tonkinensis Craib., belonging to family Styraceae. Natural resins are typically fusible and flammable organic substances that are transparent or translucent and are yellowish to brown in colour. Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Drugs Containing Resins. Some of the resin adheres to the trunk in the form of long, ovoid, pale-yellow, brittle tears, while the remainder falls to the ground. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources. and composed of resin dissolved in essential oils. Resins are classified mostly on the basis of two important They also precipitate proteins and alkaloids. We cannot guarantee that Pharmacognosy book is in the library. Typically resin casting procedure starts from making a master model. These are four options provided for the answers of the question only one option is right answer. • Chemically, they are complex mixtures of allied substances, such as: Narcotic analgesic 3.Hypnotic ( Induce sleep) 24. Let's start this quiz and learn more about pharmacognosy. Uses: It is a strong addicting narcotic drug and causes hallucination. Although the resin exudes naturally, removing strips of bark enhances the flow. 1 and 2 5. The material of the master model should be sturdy enough to allow making a precise mold, so popular choices include rigid plastics such as polyurethane, epoxy, polyester, ABS, Nylon or Delrin. They are formed in plant secretions and are 0. Biological Source Benzoin in the balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin Dryander and Styrax paralleloneurus Perkins, generally known in trade as Sumatra Benzoin; whereas, Styrax tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich, or other species of the section Anthostyrax of the genus Styrax, known commonly in the trade as Siam Benzoin both belong to the family: Styraceae. However However, it has been observed that in majority of the known resins these three aforesaid categories evidently predominates and thus the resulting product consequently falls into one of these groups. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. On treatment of ferulic acid with hydrochloric acid, it is converted into umbelliferone (a coumarin) which gives blue fluorescence with ammonia. You have to click any of the option to check your answer. Resin from the spruce tree was used by Due to phenolic group they form phenoxoids and become soluble in aqueous alkali solution. • They are electrically non-conductive and combustible in nature. Create free account to access unlimited books, fast download and ads free! This is a most useful document in pharmacognosy for D.pharm (according to syllabus) as well as B.pharm and GATE students in India. Balsams are the naturally occurring resinous mixtures which Source: Pharmacognosy And Pharmacobiotechnology By Ashutosh Kar These are of two types, namely: (a) Resinotannols: The resin alcohols which give a specific tannin reaction with iron salts are termed as resinotannols. • It also contains umbellic acid and umbelliferone; the latter is found combined with ferulic acid, but it … 1 2013 www.phytojournal.com Page | 263 diuretic and laxative properties. 6.lipids full notes in pdf pharmacognosy and biochemistry, 4. glycosides Full notes for presentation and examination pharmacognosy, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). Factor affecting cultivation of medicinal plant. F. belonging to family: Dipterocarpaceae. they are insoluble in water but dissolve in alcohol and ether. ginger, copaiba, Canada resin are few important examples of oleoresins. derivatives. and net result of metabolism in the higher plants, See more. Podophyllum resin topical (for the skin) is … Resin acids dissolve in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the resin acids are regenerated upon treatment with acids. Zoopharmacognosy is a behaviour in which non-human animals apparently self-medicate by selecting and ingesting or topically applying plants, soils, insects, and psychoactive drugs to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of pathogens and toxins. Natural resi… • Oleoresins are homogenous mixtures of resins and volatile oils. alcohols or as esters of benzoic, salicylic, and cinnamic acids. containing drugs. products according to their active functional groups as given below: Resin acids are the carboxylic acid group containing Podophyllum resin is made from the extracts of certain plants (such as American mandrake, May apple, Duck's foot, Indian apple). Synonyms Resinolic Acid. Resinotannols gives a positive reaction with ferric chloride. It also has many applications, ranging from art to polymer production, and many consumers interact with products that contain it on a daily basis. Scientific research is starting to provide evidence for its effects on inflammatory health conditions. • Chemically, resins are complex mixtures of resin acids, resin alcohols (resinol), resin phenols (resinotannols), esters and chemically inert compounds known as resenes. This Pharmacognosy Quiz questions answers are applicable for any kind of Medical PG Entrance exam or job related exam especially for PHD, MD, MS, M.Ch., D.M, Medical Students.You can practice as much as you can to gather knowledge of how to answers Pharmacognosy Quiz, each question having four alternate answers, once you select one answers of Pharmacognosy Quiz, system will show you … • The resins and resinous substances are more or less extensively Distribution of Resins in Plants: Resin definition, any of a class of nonvolatile, solid or semisolid organic substances, as copal or mastic, that consist of amorphous mixtures of carboxylic acids and are obtained directly from certain plants as exudations or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules: used in medicine and in the making of varnishes and plastics. enclosed flowering plants, and Gymnosperm i.e., naked-seed non- 4.It has psychotropic properties due to 1,3,4 Tetra hydro cannabinol 5.Used as an antibacterial agent 25. The oleogum resin containing drugs • These findings and observations lead to the fact the resins are the overall Secretory tissues are composed of cells, which contain various kinds of secretions in them. sea-weeds, fungi etc. Applying podophyllum resin, also called podophyllin, as a 10% to 25% suspension or as a 2% to 4% gel, is effective for removing genital warts. It covers most of the subject matters of Pharmacognosy. Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Drugs Containing Resins. In Sumatra the seeds are sown in rice fields. Resin, any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a noncrystalline or viscous liquid substance. Some important balsams containing drugs are balsam of Storesinol – From storax which is the balsamic resin usually obtained from the trunk of Liquidamber orientalis Mill. Alzheimer’s disease. The resinotannol are found in PHARMACOGNOSY REVIEWER In pharmacognosy, drugs may be classified based on morphology, chemical constituents and therapeutic applications (NOT price in the market) Factors that influence secondary constituent: heredity, ontogeny, environment Chromatography: process based on distribution of mixture between 2 phases General Information RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATIONS 2. Resin is a natural or synthetic compound that begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with treatment. The oleoresins posses an essence due to volatile oils. These are amorphous mixtures of essential oils, oxygenated products of terpenes and carboxylic acids Examples of resin acids are abietic acid (sylvic acid), C 20 H 30 O 2, plicatic acid contained in cedar, and pimaric acid, C 20 H 30 O 2, a constituent of galipot resin. Stretchy or fragile materials would deliver a poor surface of the piece and imprecise det… Pharmacognosy (Pharmacy Allopathy) - MCQs. They are usually found to be soluble in aqueous solutions of the alkalies, thereby forming either soap like solutions or colloidal suspensions. A trace Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. balsam of Peru as peruresinotannol, in Tolu balsam as toluresinotannol and in 8)RESINS NOTES BY BILAL MALIK 229 Resins: Introduction: • Resins are amorphous solid or semisolid substances that are invariably water insoluble but mostly soluble in alcohol or other organic solvents. Phelloderm is a tissue produced inwardly by the cork cambium. Copyright © 2019, 2020 pharmacy180.com; Developed by Therithal info. resene-containing drug, which contains drug about 50% of asaresene B. Due to phenolic group Jalap 2. aromatic acids like benzoic, cinnamic, salicylic acids, etc. Resins, in general, are amorphous solid or semisolid substances that are invariably water insoluble but mostly soluble in alcohol or other organic solvents. 1. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive brain disorder that causes problems with memory, behavior, and thinking. association of resin with gums and/or volatile oils is given below. • Physically they are found to be hard, translucent or transparent and 1. gluco-resins. They form colloidal solution with water giving acid reactions. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Mcq in Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry (2) - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. metallic salts known as resinates, which finds their use in soap, paints and resin. com-pounds of high molecular weight. and produce glucoresins. 1. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. In China the resin from a particular pine tree is used to treat abscesses. Resin definition, any of a class of nonvolatile, solid or semisolid organic substances, as copal or mastic, that consist of amorphous mixtures of carboxylic acids and are obtained directly from certain plants as exudations or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules: used in medicine and in the making of varnishes and plastics. You can change your ad preferences anytime. SIAM BENZOIN. Spermatophyta i.e., the seed plants. weight compounds which occur in free states or as esters. Oleoresins: amount of gummy material may sometimes be found in oleoresins. flowering plants. Resin esters are the esters of the resin acids or the other Plant hormone 3). contain a high proportion of aromatic balsamic acids such as benzoic acid, Uses – 1.Sedative 2. fusible i.e., upon heating they first get softened and ultimately melt. From: Basic Fundamentals of Drug Delivery, 2019 gamboage, etc. Resin acids can be derivatized to their This pharmacognosy blog has been designed to meet the requirements of the students of Degree and Diploma course in Pharmacy. However, physically they are found to be hard, translucent or transparent and fusible i.e., upon heating they first get … Resenes are insoluble in water. Oleogum resins are the naturally occurring mixtures of ... resin starch and calcium oxalate. Colophony 4. 1. compounds. Click Get Books and find your favorite books in the online library. distributed throughout the entire plant kingdom, specifically the They also precipitate proteins and alkaloids. Composition. 2. Resin is a category of water-insoluble, cross-linked polymers having an ionizable group by which it may form a complex structure with a drug to eliminate several problems including taste, odor, stability, etc. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes.Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene.Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids. Pharmacognosy. • However, the resins have not been reported in the Thallophyta i.e., the Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Drugs Containing Resins Asafoetida is an oleo-gum resin obtained as an exudation by incision of the decapitated rhizome and roots of Ferula asafoetida L, F. foetida, Royel, F. rubricaulis Boiss, and some other species of Ferula, belonging to family Apiaceae. This encyclopedic reference work on pharmacognosy covers the study of those natural substances, principally plants, that find a use in medicine. The volatile oil is a mixture of cuminic aldehyde, eugenol, cresol, pinene, limonene, dipentene, and two sesquiterpenes. Resin is a natural or synthetic compound that begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with treatment. Accordingly, other simple classification based on the the glycone and aglycone. phelloderm. • These are the vegetative (asexual) secretions obtained as natural products Alkaloid, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Specifically, this area encompasses the study of secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, phytosterols, and terpenoids that are derived from nature, and is inclusive of plants as well as marine and terrestrial microbes and animals. Resenes are soluble in benzene, chloroform and to some extent in cinnamic acid, and their esters. Advanced Pharmacognosy … ... Sumatra Benzoin is a pathological resin which is formed by making incision and by attack of fungi. Define evolution of crude drug and discuss microscopic evolution of crude drug. and myrrh respectively are the examples of resin acids. 2 No. 6). White-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) in Panama take the menthol-scented resin from freshly scraped bark of Trattinnickia aspera (Burseraceae) and vigorously rub it into their own fur or that of other coatis, possibly to kill ectoparasites such as fleas, ticks, and lice, as well as biting insects such as mosquitoes; the resin contains triterpenes α - and β-amyrin, the eudesmane derivative β-selinene, and the … After having been exposed to the various aspects of resins with regard to their physical and chemical, properties, occurrence and distribution, preparation, chemical composition and classification, it would be worthwhile to gain some in-depth knowledge about certain typical examples belonging to Resins; Oleo-resins; Oleo-gum-resins; Balsams; and Glycoresins. (iii) In the instance of gum-resins, the resin is aptly extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol while leaving the insoluble gum residue in the flask (or soxhlet thimble). This refers to the solid resin obtained from Pinus palustris which is used as stiffening agent in cerates, plasters, and ointments. The sticky extrusive mass that comes from a cut on a pine tree is resin. resin by dissolving the gum in water. 3. Resin is a category of water-insoluble, cross-linked polymers having an ionizable group by which it may form a complex structure with a drug to eliminate several problems including taste, odor, stability, etc. Introduction: Resin alcohols or resinols are the complex alcoholic Glycoresins – e.g., Jalap Resin from Jalap i.e., Ipomea purga Hayne; (Family: Conrulvulaceae) Podophylloresin from the dried roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum (P. emodi) Royle. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. like copaiba and Canada are sometimes wrongly referred to as balsams. Boswellia is a resin that has widespread use in natural medicine. The resin also contains cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid etc Indian hemp seeds contains about 20% fixed oil. Resins: • since the majority of them belong to the phyllum Angiosperum i.e., seed- 229 Dragon’s blood and benzoin are the common resin ester pharmacognosy. The astringent in nature of tannins is due to the fact that they can precipitate proteins and render them resistant to enzymatic attack. with gums. Peru, balsam of Tolu, benzoin, and storax. hardens. Resin phenols or resinotannols are also high molecular Pteridophyta i.e., the ferns and their allies. Continuous interest in this field has led to the emergence of many allied fields of study such as natural product, pharmacology, biomedicine, spectrometry, and biotechnology. Resin Alcohols In general, resin alcohols are complex alcohols having higher molecular weight. Resin. and are regarded as the end products of metabolism. Tannins (definition, classification) 7). They are formed in plant secretions and are soluble in various organic liquids but not in water. (ii) Resin Esters and their Decomposition Products i.e., Resin Alcohols (Resinols) and Resin Phenols (Resinotannols). Resinotannols 8)RESINS NOTES BY BILAL MALIK they form phenoxoids and become soluble in aqueous alkali solution. Disclaimer: Author does not claim perfect ness. Chemically inert resin products are generally termed as • Notably, their presence is almost rare and practically negligible in the 4). They are It is one of the ingredients of the preparation known as Bilwadi churna (Baidyanath). 2). Due to solubility in water, gums can be easily separated out from if you want to see explaination of the answer you can click discuss link.